What is Toll-like receptors and what is their functions?

Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are a class of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) that initiate the innate immune response by sensing conserved molecular patterns for early immune recognition of a pathogen (1).

What is the role of toll-like receptors in innate immune responses?

Each TLR distinguishes between specific patterns of microbial components to provoke innate immune responses. The activation of innate immunity then leads to the development of antigen-specific adaptive immunity. Thus, TLRs control both innate and adaptive immune responses.

Are Toll-like receptors innate immunity?

The recent discovery and characterization of the Toll-like receptor (TLR) family have incited new interest in the field of innate immunity. It is already clear that these receptors have a vital role in microbial recognition, induction of antimicrobial genes and the control of adaptive immune responses.

Why is it called toll-like receptors?

TLRs received their name from their similarity to the protein coded by the toll gene identified in Drosophila in 1985 by Christiane Nüsslein-Volhard and Eric Wieschaus. …

How many toll-like receptors do humans have?

ten different
stimulation. Scientists now know that humans have at least ten different TLRs, and they collectively recognize a broad spectrum of pathogens (Figure 1). TLRs 1, 2, 4, 5, and 6 bind to components of microbial cell walls and membranes unique to pathogens.

What is a TLR agonist?

Agonists that target toll-like receptors (TLR) are being used clinically either alone or in combination with tumor antigens and showing initial success both in terms of enhancing immune responses and eliciting anti-tumor activity.

What is the purpose of innate immune system?

Innate, or nonspecific, immunity is the defense system with which you were born. It protects you against all antigens. Innate immunity involves barriers that keep harmful materials from entering your body.

Why are TLRs so important in innate immunity?

Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play a major role in innate immunity, since they detect conserved pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) on a range of microbes, including viruses, leading to innate immune activation and orchestration of the adaptive immune response.

What do Toll-like receptors activate?

TLRs recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). Different TLRs play distinct roles in the activation of the immune and inflammatory responses to different microbial components.

Where are PAMPs found?

One major category of inflammatory stimulation, or “signal 0s” is the family of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) and damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs). These patterns are found on bacterial cell walls, DNA, lipoproteins, carbohydrates, or other structures.