What is the life expectancy of someone with PCD?

Prognosis in PCD is good, with a normal life expectancy [12]. Diagnosis of PCD can be problematic, with wide variation in symptoms and scarcity of diagnostic facilities [4]. Age at presentation in one study varied from 4 months to 51 years [13].

How do you expect Kartagener syndrome leads to infertility?

They may even cause hearing loss. The moveable tails, or flagella, of sperm can also be affected by PCD. This can cause abnormal sperm motility and infertility in men. Women with Kartagener’s syndrome can also be infertile, due to impaired cilia motility in the lining of their fallopian tubes.

Who was Kartagener?

Manes Kartagener (1897 – 1975) was an Austrian-Swiss physician. He was the first to report the triad of situs inversus, chronic sinusitis and bronchiectasis in 1933, which is now eponymous with his name – Kartagener syndrome.

What is Kartagener syndrome caused by?

Kartagener syndrome can be caused by changes ( mutations ) in many different genes . These genes encode proteins that are important to the structure and function of cilia.

Can people with PCD have children?

Both the egg and sperm are viable in PCD (it is possible for people with PCD to have fertility/sterility issues totally unrelated to their PCD, of course)—if the sperm and egg connect, conception can occur because the egg and sperm themselves are fine.

Can people with primary ciliary dyskinesia have kids?

Primary ciliary dyskinesia is a disorder characterized by chronic respiratory tract infections, abnormally positioned internal organs, and the inability to have children (infertility). The signs and symptoms of this condition are caused by abnormal cilia and flagella .

What happens if you don’t have cilia?

If the cilia don’t work well, bacteria stay in your airways. This can cause breathing problems, infections, and other disorders. PCD mainly affects the sinuses, ears, and lungs.

Does situs inversus affect the brain?

One possibility is that asymmetries in the structure of the brain may influence the subsequent function of the organ. Yet individuals with anatomical reversals in brain structure, due to a condition called situs inversus totalis, still retain left-sided language processing [4].

Can a person be born with their heart on the right side?

Dextrocardia is a condition in which the heart is pointed toward the right side of the chest. Normally, the heart points toward the left. The condition is present at birth (congenital).

Is bronchiectasis a lung disease?

Bronchiectasis is a long-term condition where the airways of the lungs become widened, leading to a build-up of excess mucus that can make the lungs more vulnerable to infection. The most common symptoms of bronchiectasis include: a persistent cough that usually brings up phlegm (sputum)

Can you get pregnant with situs inversus?

Results: Fifteen singleton pregnancies in 9 patients with dextrocardia were identified. There were 6 pregnancies in 3 patients with situs inversus and 9 pregnancies in 6 patients with isolated dextrocardia. There were no apparent antenatal complications.

Why are males with PCD sterile?

Individuals with PCD may experience infertility (inability to conceive naturally) or subfertility (delayed natural conception) due to genetic changes that impact the function of cilia in the Fallopian tubes in women and the sperm tails (flagella*) in men.