What does axonal mean?

: of, relating to, affecting, or taking place along an axon axonal growth diffuse axonal injury axonal transport of organelles They have struggled to identify the signals responsible for axonal guidanceā€”for steering the tender and tentative axon of a young nerve cell through the pandemonium of the growing brain and …

What is axonal reaction?

Chromatolysis, also known as the axon reaction, encompasses a sequence of morphologic changes in neuronal cell bodies following an insult, most often after axotomy.

What is axonal death?

Abstract. Axon loss is a shared feature of nervous systems being challenged in neurological disease, by chemotherapy or mechanical force. Axons take up the vast majority of the neuronal volume, thus numerous axonal intrinsic and glial extrinsic support mechanisms have evolved to promote lifelong axonal survival.

What causes axonal?

Axon degeneration is a hallmark consequence of chemical neurotoxicant exposure (e.g. acrylamide), mechanical trauma (e.g. nerve transection, spinal cord contusion), deficient perfusion (e.g. ischemia, hypoxia), and inherited neuropathies (e.g. infantile neuroaxonal dystrophy).

Can axonal neuropathy be cured?

Once neuropathy has developed, few types can be fully cured, but early treatment can improve outcomes. Some nerve fibers can slowly regenerate if the nerve cell itself is still alive. Eliminating the underlying cause can prevent future nerve damage. Good nutrition and reasonable exercise can speed healing.

What causes axonal neuropathy?

Diabetes, HIV infection and alcoholism can cause several patterns of neuropathy. They most commonly cause a distal, symmetric axonal sensorimotor neuropathy. The second most common presentation in these conditions is a small-fiber, painful neuropathy.

What is an axonal spheroid?

Spheroids are axonal swellings with discontinuous or absence of myelin sheaths. It is believed that the disease arises from primary microglial dysfunction that leads to secondary disruption of axonal integrity, neuroaxonal damage, and focal axonal spheroids leading to demyelination.

Which of the following occurs after axonal transection?

For instance, following transection of a peripheral nerve, the distal portions of the affected axons degenerate together with their myelin sheaths. This is termed Wallerian degeneration, which is accompanied by regenerative changes in the parent cell, called the axon reaction.

What happens if the axon is cut?

Scientists do know that a severed axon will cause a neuron to quickly lose some of its incoming connections from other neurons. These connections occur at short, root-like tendrils called dendrites, which sprout from the neuron’s cell body, or soma.

Can axonal loss be reversed?

Axonal injury and loss in MS lesions has major consequences for the patients. Clinical deficit, induced by inflammation and demyelination, is principally reversible, while functional loss due to axonal degeneration overall is permanent.

Which conditions cause damage to axon?

Axon Growth and Regeneration: Part 1 The mechanisms of axonal injury depend on the disease and include ischemia, inflammation, compression, and trauma. The final common pathway of axonal injury is processes of retrograde and Wallerian degeneration, autonomous processes separate from apoptosis.

Do axons regenerate?

After peripheral nerve injury, axons readily regenerate. This active process results in fragmentation and disintegration of the axon. Debris is removed by glial cells, predominantly macrophages. Proximal axons can then regenerate and re-innervate their targets, allowing recovery of function.