What lab do you see with hyperglycemic hyperosmolar syndrome?
Initial laboratory findings in patients with HHS include marked elevations in blood glucose levels (greater than 600 mg per dL [33.3 mmol per L]) and in serum osmolarity (greater than 320 mOsm per L of water [normal = 290 ± 5]), with a pH level greater than 7.30 and mild or absent ketosis.
What lab value is consistent with hyperglycemic hyperosmolar nonketotic syndrome?
Hyperosmolar hyperglycemic nonketotic syndrome has four key clinical features: Severe hyperglycemia — blood glucose usually >600 mg/dL (>33.3 mM) and generally 1000 mg/dL to 2000 mg/dL (55.5 mM to 111.1 mM) Absence of or slight ketosis. Plasma or serum hyperosmolality (>340 mOsm)
What lab test confirms HHNS?
Diagnosis. HHNS is diagnosed based on symptoms and by measuring blood glucose levels, which can be performed with a finger stick. A blood glucose level of 600 mg/dL and low ketone levels are the main factors for diagnosis of HHNS.
How does HHS cause dehydration?
HHS occurs when the blood sugar of a person with diabetes becomes too high (hyperglycemia) for a long time. The extra sugar is passed into the urine, which causes the person to urinate frequently. As a result, he or she loses a lot of fluid, which can lead to severe dehydration (extreme thirst).
Why is HHS more common in diabetes 2?
The condition most commonly occurs in people with type 2 diabetes. It’s often triggered by illness or infection. In diabetic hyperosmolar syndrome, your body tries to rid itself of the excess blood sugar by passing it into your urine.
What is the standard treatment for hyperosmolar hyperglycemic syndrome?
Treatment typically includes: Fluids given through a vein (intravenously) to treat dehydration. Insulin given through a vein (intravenously) to lower your blood sugar levels. Potassium and sometimes sodium phosphate replacement given through a vein (intravenously) to help your cells function correctly.
Why are there no ketones in HHS?
Serum ketones are not present because the amounts of insulin present in most patients with type 2 diabetes are adequate to suppress ketogenesis.
How do you manage hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state?
Treatment of HHS Treatment consists of IV saline, correction of hypokalemia, and IV insulin (1 ). Treatment is 0.9% (isotonic) saline solution at a rate of 15 to 20 mL/kg/hour, for the first few hours. After that, the corrected sodium should be calculated.