What is the cause of neurogenic pulmonary edema?

The primary precipitants of neurogenic pulmonary edema (NPE) are epileptic seizures, traumatic brain injury, and various forms of intracranial hemorrhages [2,3]. Neurogenic pulmonary edema is also an increasingly recognized complication of pediatric encephalitis with Enterovirus-71 (Hand, foot, and mouth disease) [4].

How is neurogenic pulmonary edema treated?

General supportive care for neurogenic pulmonary edema (NPE) includes supplemental oxygen to correct hypoxemia. Mechanical ventilation may be necessary, either noninvasive with a face mask or via an endotracheal tube.

Can pulmonary edema cause increased intracranial pressure?

Summary. We have reported 11 patients, ages 12 to 44, without primary cardiopulmonary disease who developed severe acute pulmonary edema in response to some lesion of the central nervous system. Increased intracranial pressure appeared to be the only common etiological factor.

What is the most common cause of cardiac pulmonary edema?

The most common cause of pulmonary edema is congestive heart failure (CHF). Heart failure happens when the heart can no longer pump blood properly throughout the body. This creates a backup of pressure in the small blood vessels of the lungs, which causes the vessels to leak fluid.

What are the types of pulmonary edema?

Two main types of pulmonary edema are recognized: first, cardiogenic (or hydrostatic) pulmonary edema from, as the name implies, an elevated pulmonary capillary pressure from left-sided heart failure; second, noncardiogenic (increased permeability) pulmonary edema from injury to the endothelial and (usually) epithelial …

How does trauma cause pulmonary edema?

The sudden over-activation of the neurogenic pulmonary edema trigger zones (either due to direct injury/irritation, activation of ascending neural pathways or as a response to the raised ICP) prompts sympathetic overflow and an outburst of catecholamines initiating 3 important pathophysiological responses; systemic …

What is Reexpansion pulmonary edema?

Reexpansion pulmonary edema (RPE) is a rare complication that may occur after treatment of lung collapse caused by pneumothorax, atelectasis or pleural effusion and can be fatal in 20% of cases.

What are the two types of pulmonary edema?

What is the etiology of neurogenic pulmonary edema?

Neurogenic pulmonary edema (NPE) is a clinical syndrome characterized by the acute onset of pulmonary edema following a significant central nervous system (CNS) insult. The etiology is thought to be a surge of catecholamines that results in cardiopulmonary dysfunction.

How does catecholamine surge cause pulmonary edema?

Several theories have been proposed to explain how the catecholamine surge causes pulmonary edema: “Blast theory” (acute (transient) rise in capillary pressure induces a degree of barotrauma capable of damaging the capillary-alveolar membrane, in addition to neuro-hemodynamic effects causing transudative pulmonary edema)

What kind of pulmonary edema is caused by seizures?

Ann Neurol 1989; 26:195. Mahdavi Y, Surges R, Nikoubashman O, et al. Neurogenic pulmonary edema following seizures: A retrospective computed tomography study. Epilepsy Behav 2019; 94:112.

How does the blast theory relate to pulmonary edema?

The “blast theory” further posits that the acute rise in capillary pressure induces a degree of barotrauma capable of damaging the capillary-alveolar membrane. The structural damage to the pulmonary endothelium ultimately leads to vascular leak and persistent protein-rich pulmonary edema [ 39 ].