What is spur cells?

Spur cells, or acanthocytes (from the Greek word acantha, “thorn”), are erythrocytes covered with spikelike projections that vary in width, length, and distribution (see image below). They are characterized by diminished deformability, which is responsible for their entrapment and destruction in the spleen.

What is the difference between Burr cells and acanthocytes?

Acanthocytes, by contrast, have irregularly spaced thorn-like projections and little or no central pallor. Although Burr cells may be associated with diseases, such as uremia or pyruvate kinase deficiency, crenated cells that may be confused with true Burr cells are frequent artifacts.

How are acanthocytes different from echinocytes?

Acanthocytes are irregularly spiculated cells (spicules are irregular in size, shape and distribution around the RBC membrane), whereas echinocytes are regularly spiculated cells.

What does Burr cells present mean?

The presence of cells called burr cells may indicate: Abnormally high level of nitrogen waste products in the blood ( uremia )

What causes Acanthocyte cells?

Acanthocytes can be caused by (1) altered distribution or proportions of membrane lipids or by (2) membrane protein or membrane skeleton abnormalities. In membrane lipid abnormalities, previously normal red cell precursors often acquire the acanthocytic morphology from the plasma.

What causes helmet cells?

They are frequently a consequence of mechanical artificial heart valves and hemolytic uremic syndrome, thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura, among other causes. Excessive schistocytes present in blood can be a sign of microangiopathic hemolytic anemia (MAHA).

Are Burr cells Bad?

Having burr cells was associated with a mortality rate of 27.3% and was found most commonly in patients with renal or liver failure. Absolute lymphocytosis predicted poor outcome in patients with trauma and CNS injury.

Can Burr cells be normal?

Burr cell were observed in 77% of normal individual with a mean of 0.051% of all RBCs.

Are burr cells serious?

What are target cells indicative of?

Presence of cells called target cells may be due to: Deficiency of an enzyme called lecithin cholesterol acyl transferase. Abnormal hemoglobin, the protein in RBCs that carries oxygen (hemoglobinopathies) Iron deficiency. Liver disease.

How are spur cells formed?

Red cells are loaded with cholesterol by this lipoprotein and acquire an increased cholesterol-to-phospholipid ratio and a surface area preferentially within the outer bilayer leaflet. Cholesterol-laden red cells are then remodeled in the spleen, resulting in the typical spur cell shape.

What disease causes Burr cells?

Burr cells have been described in association with a variety of disorders, including the following: hemolytic anemia of various causes, kidney disease, liver disease, vitamin E deficiency, increased intracellular calcium, alkalosis, and drug-induced (mesna, 5-fluorouracil, and benzodiazepines).