What is molybdenum 99 used for?

Mo-99 is the radioisotope used by millions of people around the world in nuclear medicine procedures for the diagnosis of heart disease and other diseases.

What type of radiation is emitted by molybdenum 99?

Mo-99 decays by emitting a beta particle (an electron). About 88 percent of the decays (red line) produce Tc-99m, which subsequently decays to the ground state, Tc-99g, by emitting a gamma ray.

What is a 6-day curie?

A 6-day curie is the measurement of the remaining radioactivity of 99Mo 6-days after it leaves the processors facility (End of Processing).

How much does molybdenum 99 cost?

In other words, the cost for producing Mo-99 probably range from about $125 to $325 per 6-day curie. The overall cost of producing 12,000 6-day curies of Mo-99 per week to meet 2006 demand at $225 per 6-day curies is about $140 million.

Why is there a shortage of Mo-99?

The world supply of 99Mo comes from only five nuclear research reactors and availability has been much reduced in recent times owing to problems at the largest reactors. In the short-term there are limited actions that can be taken owing to capacity issues on alternative imaging modalities.

Why is Tc-99 used in medicine?

Technetium-99m is used to image the skeleton and heart muscle in particular, but also for brain, thyroid, lungs, liver, spleen, kidney, gall bladder, bone marrow, salivary and lachrymal glands, heart blood pool, infection and numerous specialized medical studies.

Where is Mo-99 produced?

The majority of Mo-99 supplied to U.S. patients is currently provided by foreign producers located in Australia (ANSTO), Belgium (IRE), the Netherlands (Curium), and South Africa (NTP Radioisotopes). Historically, Mo-99 from these companies was mostly produced using HEU.

How does molybdenum-99 decay to technetium 99?

Technetium was created by bombarding molybdenum atoms with deuterons that had been accelerated by a device called a cyclotron. Molybdenum-98 becomes molybdenum-99 when it captures a neutron. Molybdenum-99, with a half-life of 65.94 hours, decays into technetium -99 through beta decay.

What is the difference between TC-99 and TC-99m?

Technetium-99 is produced during nuclear reactor operation, and is a byproduct of nuclear weapons explosions. Technetium-99m is a short-lived form of Tc-99 that is used as a medical diagnostic tool. It has a short half-life (6 hours) and does not remain in the body or the environment for long.

What is the half-life of TC 99?

6 hours
Technetium-99m is a short-lived form of Tc-99 that is used as a medical diagnostic tool. It has a short half-life (6 hours) and does not remain in the body or the environment for long.

How does 99 Mo of molybdenum get produced?

99 Mo may be produced by a neutron capture reaction by a 98 Mo target, in which neutrons are produced by bombarding a heavy metal target, such as Pb, Ta, and liquid mercury, with an energetic high-power proton beam (1 GeV 1 mA) via spallation reactions.

How are molybdenum 99 ionps used in cancer treatment?

The 99m Tc-labeled aminosilane-coated IONPs may be promising candidates for guided cancer diagnosis and magnetic hyperthermia therapy. Targeting is enabled via the conjugation with a new peptide-based Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) derivate, which has a high affinity and selectivity for the ανβ3 integrin receptor presented in several tumors.

What are the medical uses of molybdenum 99?

2Molybdenum-99/Technetium-99m Production and Use The congressional mandate for this study calls for an examination of the production of medical isotopes to include “molybdenum 99, iodine 131, xenon 133, and other radioactive materials used to produce radiopharmaceuticals for diagnostic and therapeutic procedures or for research and development.”

How does the cold kit work for molybdenum 99?

The cold kit generally contains a reducing agent, usually stannous chloride, which reduces the 99m Tc to lower oxidation states, allowing it to bind to a complexing agent (also known as the ligand) to form the radiopharmaceutical.