What happens when NF-kB is activated?

NF-κB target genes involved in inflammation development and progression. NF-κB is an inducible transcription factor. After its activation, it can activate transcription of various genes and thereby regulate inflammation.

What does NF-kB produce?

NF-κB (nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells) is a protein complex that controls transcription of DNA, cytokine production and cell survival.

How is NF-kB measured?

Another common method to measure NF-κB activity at the transcriptional activation level is to use a gene reporter assay, which introduces an exogenous NF-κB consensus promoter sequence linked to a measurable ‘reporter gene’ such as luciferase (18).

What genes does NF-kB regulate?

NF-κB is a key transcription factor of M1 macrophages and is required for induction of a large number of inflammatory genes, including those encoding TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-12p40 and cyclooxygenase-2.

What do NF-kB inhibitors do?

For example, NF-κB complexes are known to play key roles in the inflammatory response, in the inhibition of apoptosis, and in cell proliferation, and as a consequence, mis-regulated, usually sustained, NF-κB activity also contributes to human disease states, including most chronic inflammatory diseases and many cancers …

Does LPS activate NFkB?

LPS activates TLR4 at the cell surface resulting in MyD88 activation via Mal.

How do you reduce NF kB?

Antioxidants such as PDTC40 and NAC41 have shown a potential to inhibit NF-κB activation either by exogeneous induction (e.g. LPS, TNFα) or hydrogen peroxide treatment. Antioxidants are likely to inhibit NF-κB by scavenging reactive oxygen intermediates involved in the NF-κB pathway42.

What is meant by target gene?

“Target Gene” often just means “Gene Of Interest”, or the particular gene being studied or manipulated in an experiment. In the context of a “gene knockout”, a “target gene” may be the gene that a “targeting vector” is designed to knock out (make non-functional, non-stable, or non-expressable).

How do you inhibit the NF-kB pathway?

What phosphorylates NF-kB?

The NF-κB transcription factor is the master regulator of the inflammatory response and is essential for the homeostasis of the immune system. NF-κB regulates the transcription of genes that control inflammation, immune cell development, cell cycle, proliferation, and cell death.