What did Lauretta Bender do?

Lauretta Bender (August 9, 1897 – January 4, 1987) was an American child neuropsychiatrist known for developing the Bender-Gestalt Test, a psychological test designed to evaluate visual-motor maturation in children.

What is the Bellevue experiment?

Bender’s experiments at the infamous Bellevue Psychiatric Hospital were ultimately to evaluate the effect of electric shock on schizophrenic children. She wanted to show that bad or undesirable behavior did not always come from a bad upbringing, race, or gender, but that some were neurological in composition.

Who has introduced ECT first time?

The ECT procedure was first conducted in 1938 by Italian psychiatrist Ugo Cerletti and rapidly replaced less safe and effective forms of biological treatments in use at the time. ECT is often used with informed consent as a safe and effective intervention for major depressive disorder, mania, and catatonia.

What are the ethical concerns surrounding electroconvulsive therapy and psychosurgery?

The present practice of ECT meets standards for beneficence, non-maleficence, and autonomy. In many nations, however, the principle of justice is not respected, leading to unavailability of ECT, increased suffering and prolonged illness.

What is shock therapy used for?

Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is a medical treatment most commonly used in patients with severe major depression or bipolar disorder that has not responded to other treatments. ECT involves a brief electrical stimulation of the brain while the patient is under anesthesia.

Is Bellevue still a mental hospital?

Though Bellevue is a full-service hospital, it was once popularly associated with its treatment of mentally ill patients who required psychiatric commitment. The name “Bellevue” became a pejorative slang term for a psychiatric hospital.

Why is Bellevue Hospital Famous?

Bellevue has been known for delivering high-quality care to the disadvantaged and homeless, to dignitaries and U.S. presidents. The hospital has been at the forefront of advancements in American medicine, including cardiac catheterization and the treatment of HIV/AIDS and tuberculosis patients.

What is the success rate of ECT?

Typically, ECT (whether inpatient or outpatient) is given two to three times a week for a total of six to twelve sessions. Some patients may need more or fewer treatments. These sessions improve depression in 70 to 90 percent of patients, a response rate much higher than that of antidepressant drugs.

What are the negative side effects of ECT?

The most common side effects of ECT on the day of treatment include nausea, headache, fatigue, confusion, and slight memory loss, which may last minutes to hours. These risks must be balanced with the consequences of ineffectively treated severe psychiatric disorders.

What does electroshock therapy do to your brain?

Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is a procedure, done under general anesthesia, in which small electric currents are passed through the brain, intentionally triggering a brief seizure. ECT seems to cause changes in brain chemistry that can quickly reverse symptoms of certain mental health conditions.

Is it ethically right to use electroshock therapy in the treatment of mental illnesses?

ECT research is ethically justified and should always continue to be conducted with the highest ethical standards. ECT research entails few ethical peculiarities such as involving multiple sessions were capacity to consent can change.

Do doctors still use shock therapy?

ECT is much safer today. Although ECT may still cause some side effects, it now uses electric currents given in a controlled setting to achieve the most benefit with the fewest possible risks.

What did Lauretta Bender do for Childhood schizophrenia?

Bender was one of the first to propose that there was something neurologically impaired with these children. Bender diagnosed many children with “childhood Schizophrenia”, and sought to treat these patients.

Where did Lauretta Bender go to medical school?

Bender completed internships and residencies at Billings Hospital of the University of Chicago, the Boston Psychopathic Hospital, the University of Amsterdam, and the Johns Hopkins University Hospital, held a Rockefeller Traveling Fellowship that took her to Holland.

When did Lauretta Bender invent the Gestalt Test?

Lauretta Bender (August 9, 1897 – January 4, 1987) was an American child neuropsychiatrist known for developing the Bender-Gestalt Test, a psychological test designed to evaluate visual-motor maturation in children. First published by Bender in 1938, the test became a widely used for assessing children’s neurological function…

When was Lauretta Bender’s neurological test first published?

First published by Bender in 1938, the test became widely used for assessing children’s neurological function and screening for developmental disorders.