What causes diabetes insipidus?
Diabetes insipidus is caused by problems with a chemical called vasopressin (AVP), which is also known as antidiuretic hormone (ADH). AVP is produced by the hypothalamus and stored in the pituitary gland until needed. The hypothalamus is an area of the brain that controls mood and appetite.
What causes ADH deficiency?
Deficiency of ADH is usually due to hypothalamic-neurohypophyseal lesions (central diabetes insipidus) or insensitivity of the kidney to ADH (nephrogenic diabetes insipidus). These patients, if untreated, have the predictable result of dehydration, hyperosmolality, hypovolemia, and eventual death in severe cases.
What hormone is lacking in diabetes insipidus?
Diabetes insipidus is caused by problems with a hormone called vasopressin (AVP), also called antidiuretic hormone (ADH).
How can diabetes insipidus be treated?
Central diabetes insipidus. Typically, this form is treated with a synthetic hormone called desmopressin (DDAVP, Nocdurna). This medication replaces the missing anti-diuretic hormone (ADH) and decreases urination. You can take desmopressin in a tablet, as a nasal spray or by injection.
What happens if ADH is low?
If your body doesn’t produce enough ADH or your kidneys don’t respond to it, your body loses too much water in urine output. Signs of low ADH include: Excessive thirst. Frequent urination.
What would be the most obvious symptom of diabetes insipidus?
The main symptom of all cases of diabetes insipidus is frequently needing to pass high volumes of diluted urine. The second most common symptom is polydipsia, or excessive thirst. In this case, results from the loss of water through urine.
How do you treat low ADH levels?
Typically, this form is treated with a synthetic hormone called desmopressin (DDAVP, Nocdurna). This medication replaces the missing anti-diuretic hormone (ADH) and decreases urination. You can take desmopressin in a tablet, as a nasal spray or by injection.
What is a normal ADH level?
Normal Results Normal values for ADH can range from 1 to 5 pg/mL (0.9 to 4.6 pmol/L). Normal value ranges may vary slightly among different laboratories.
Can diabetes insipidus be temporary?
Some cases of diabetes insipidus are mild, and may be temporary, like if you recently had pituitary surgery. In this case, your doctor will recommend maintaining a proper intake of water throughout the day. Medication is a treatment option for more severe cases.
What is the prognosis of diabetes insipidus (DI)?
Prognosis Diabetes insipidus usually doesn’t cause serious problems. Adults rarely die from it as long as they drink enough water. But the risk of death is higher for infants, seniors, and those who have mental illnesses.
What are the differential diagnoses for diabetes insipidus?
Diabetes insipidus: Differential diagnosis and management. They are: (1) pituitary DI, due to inadequate production and secretion of antidiuretic hormone, arginine-vasopressin (AVP); (2) gestational DI due to degradation of AVP by an enzyme made in placenta; (3) primary polydipsia, due to suppression of AVP secretion by excessive fluid intake;
Is diabetes insipidus dangerous?
Though diabetes insipidus is quite rare, it is a very dangerous condition that could be life-threatening if it is not properly treated.
How is diabetes insipidus (DI) defined and characterized?
Definition Diabetes insipidus (DI) is a heterogeneous condition characterized by polyuria and polydipsia caused either due to a lack of secretion of vasopressin (antidiuretic hormone) from posterior pituitary, its physiological suppression following excessive water intake, kidney resistance to its action, or its increased degradation.1