How otitis media cause middle ear atelectasis?

Atelectasis of the middle ear is a condition of retraction and atrophy of the tympanic membrane in chronic otitis media with effu- sion. The tympanic membrane, in the pres- ence of middle ear effusion, shows a variety of changes.

What is ear atelectasis?

Atelectasis can be defined as the state in which parts or all of the tympanic membrane are found to retract medially. When only a part of the tympanic membrane is involved, it is most commonly the pars flaccida or the posterior superior quadrant of the pars tensa.

What is Ossicular fixation?

Ossicular chain fixation refers to the presence of fibrous tissue (chronic adhesive otitis media) which usually appears as a non-calcified, soft tissue density encasing some or all of the ossicular chain.

What are the classifications for tympanoplasty?

Type I: repair of the TM alone; no abnormality of the middle ear. Type I tympanoplasty is synonymous with myringoplasty. Type II: repair of the TM and middle ear; the malleus is eroded. Tympanoplasty involves grafting the TM to the incus.

What is the promontory of the middle ear?

The cochlear promontory is the name given to the bone that overlies the basal turn of the cochlea protruding into the middle ear cavity.

What is a Tympanotomy procedure?

Tympanostomy is the surgical procedure to insert ear tubes. This is usually an outpatient procedure. This means that your child will have surgery, and then go home that same day. Before the surgery, you will meet with different members of the health care team who will be involved in your child’s care.

What’s the meaning of myringotomy?

Myringotomy is a surgical procedure of the eardrum or tympanic membrane. The procedure is performed by making a small incision with a myringotomy knife through the layers of tympanic membrane (see the image below).

What causes ossicular fixation?

Ossicular fixation can also be the result of chronic ear infections. The cycle of continued inflammation causes the ligaments of the ossicles to harden into solid bone. The ossicles are then fused to the walls of the middle ear.

What is a Type 3 tympanoplasty?

Background: Type III stapes columella tympanoplasty involves the placement of a tympanic membrane graft, usually made of temporalis fascia, directly onto the stapes head. The procedure is usually done in conjunction with a canal wall down mastoidectomy.

What is Type 2 tympanoplasty?

Type 2 involves repair of the tympanic membrane and middle ear in spite of slight defects in the middle ear ossicles. Type 3 involves removal of ossicles and epitympanum when there are large defects of the malleus and incus. The tympanic membrane is repaired and directly connected to the head of the stapes.

What are the names of the three small bones in the middle ear?

The middle ear contains three tiny bones:

  • Hammer (malleus) — attached to the eardrum.
  • Anvil (incus) — in the middle of the chain of bones.
  • Stirrup (stapes) — attached to the membrane-covered opening that connects the middle ear with the inner ear (oval window)