How do you convert cyclohexane to adipic acid?

Current technology for the industrial production of adipic acid involves the two-step oxidation of cyclohexane,7 i.e., aerobic oxidation of cyclohexane at 150−170 °C in the presence of a soluble Co catalyst to form a K/A oil from which subsequent nitric oxidation produces adipic acid.

What is the formula of adipic acid?

Adipic acid/Formula
Adipic acid or hexanedioic acid is the organic compound with the formula (CH2)4(COOH)2. From an industrial perspective, it is the most important dicarboxylic acid: about 2.5 billion kilograms of this white crystalline powder are produced annually, mainly as a precursor for the production of nylon.

Which oxidation conditions are used in the industrial transformation of cyclohexanone to adipic acid?

The optimum conditions for the oxidation of cyclohexanol were 25 mg of catalyst, 120 °C, 15 bar oxygen pressure, and 8 h. Furthermore, this catalyst retained its catalytic activity with 84% conversion and 70% selectivity for adipic acid production after four cycles.

Does cyclohexane react with nitric acid?

Adipic acid is manufactured from cyclohexane in two major reactions. This ketone-alcohol (KA) mixture is then converted to adipic acid by oxidation with nitric acid in the second reaction, as shown in Figure 6.2-2.

What is adipic acid used for?

Adipic acid functions primarily as an acidifier, buffer, gelling aid, and sequestrant. It is used in confectionery, cheese analogs, fats, and flavoring extracts.

Is adipic acid a fatty acid?

Structure for HMDB0000448 (Adipic acid) Belongs to the class of organic compounds known as medium-chain fatty acids. These are fatty acids with an aliphatic tail that contains between 4 and 12 carbon atoms.

Is adipic acid Safe?

Adipic acid is partially metabolized in humans; the balance is eliminated unchanged in the urine. Adipic acid is slightly to moderately toxic to fish, daphnia, and algae in acute tests.

Is cyclohexanone an acid or base?

The cyclohexanone is more of a challenge. The oxygen lone pairs make it a Lewis base, but there would then be no lone pair acceptor. All other atoms have a complete octet as drawn, so identifying a Lewis acid might be a challenge–until we remember to look at resonance: This second resonance form shows that the C=O.

Is cyclohexane a benzene?

Cyclohexane has no double bonds between the carbons, its formula is C6H12, while benzene has 3 double bonds with the formula C6H6. Those double bonds are conjugated with the rest of the molecule, which is what we call an “aromatic” cycle. Well, for a start, the aromatic benzene ring is PLANAR…

What foods contain adipic acid?

Adipic acid is naturally found in beets and sugar cane. Adipic acid is commonly added as the main acid in bottled drinks, giving them a bubbly fizz. It is also adds a tart flavor to fruit juice and gelatin. The organic acid is used in many powdered food and drink mixes to provide a sweet flavor.

What is the purpose of adipic acid?

How is adipic acid made from cyclohexane?

Adipic acid is manufactured from cyclohexane in two major reactions. The first step, shown in Figure 6.2-1, is the oxidation of cyclohexane to produce cyclohexanone (a ketone) and cyclohexanol (an alcohol).

How is dicarboxylic acid prepared from cyclohexene?

As a result, the ring opens and the dicarboxylic acid is formed. The purpose of this experiment is to synthesize adipic (hexanedioic) acid through the permanganate oxidization of cyclohexene and also to gain familiarization of the laboratory method for following the progress of permanganate oxidations.

What can cyclohexane be used for on a ship?

Adipic acid produced from cyclohexane is also used to manufacture esters for plasticizers and synthetic lubricants, as well as produce polyurethanes (synthetic leather). Chevron Phillips Chemical transports cyclohexane via ships, barge, truck and rail.

How is adipic acid prepared from castor oil?

Adipic acid otherwise rarely occurs in nature. Nylon 6,6- a polymer of adipic acid and 1,6-diaminohexane Adipic acid was commonly obtained by oxidation of castor oil with nitric acid (splitting of the carbon chain close to the OH group), but it is also obtained by oxidation of cyclohexanone or cyclohexene.